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The constraints of choosing one textual “unity” correspondingly expands our ability to address a larger scale of texts, revealing patterns and relationships that might otherwise have remained hidden. By locating “figurative language” as an aspect of address for topic modeling, I choose to constrain my consideration of poetic texts and agree to a caricature of poetry that hyper-focuses on its figurative aspects so that we can better understand how topic modeling, a methodology that deals with language at the level of word and document, can be leveraged to identify latent patterns in poetic discourse.

Topic modeling with LDA first captured my attention as a possible way to ask discovery-oriented questions about a genre of poetry called ekphrasis — poems written to, for, or about the visual arts. Contemporary critical models of ekphrasis define the genre through the identification of recurring tropes invoked by poets confronted by the differences between linguistic and visual media. Drawing from a longstanding tradition of competition between poets and painters and the verbal and visual arts, our most recognized critical model for ekphrasis turns on the axis of difference, otherness, hostility, and competition. Conventions of ekphrasis include vocalizing the poet’s frustrated desire for the still, fixed, and feminized image (“ Ode on a Grecian Urn ” by John Keats); narrating the pregnant moment of the visual work of art (“ Landscape with the Fall of Icarus ” by William Carlos Williams); recounting one’s visit to a museum as if the reader’s guide or teacher (“ Outlet Enjoy Buy Cheap With Mastercard Mens Claude Sneaker LFU 3 Trainers Strellson Top Quality Cheap Online qP6vHH9
” by W.H. Auden); describing a figure transfixed on the canvas (“ My Last Dutchess ” by Robert Browning); or even using the image as a vehicle to travel back through public and personal history (“ For the Union Dead ” by Robert Lowell). Much like my abbreviated list here, the “canonical” texts used to trace the long-standing tradition of ekphrasis, from Homer’s first description of Achilles’ shield in the Illiad to John Ashbury’s “Portrait in a Convex Mirror,” have been based until just recently on examples exclusively by men.

LDA, then, offered an attractive alternative for asking questions about the ekphrastic tradition for two reasons. First, as a computational method it allowed me to cast a much wider net. Rather than selecting from just a few poems, LDA allowed me to cast my net as wide as 4,500 poems. Second, both LDA and our existing model of ekphrasis presuppose that latent patterns of language, when discovered, can be used to describe the corpus as a whole. Organizing a corpus of poetry in terms of its participation in recognized conventions of language seemed in keeping with LDA’s assumptions that texts are composed of a fixed number of topics, and so I was drawn to the prospect of using LDA to uncover ways poets enter into, disrupt, or perpetuate the ongoing discourses associated with the tropes that typify ekphrasis.

An effective and proven decision process has been developed over the last 70 years and is known as Operations Research/Management Science/Decision Science/Success Science (OR/MS/DS/SS). In the serious decisions that mold the future of your business, freedom becomes tangible; serious decisions are objects of extreme dread. Serious business decisions that ultimately shape, guide, and direct our future are extremely fearful to business managers. These decisions involve norms, standards, and the comparison and choice of goals. Learning the structured, well-focused approach to the decision-making process lessens decidophobia. The gem of Cheap Original Womens Womens Chuck Taylor All Star Canvas Sneakers Converse Browse Cheap Price Free Shipping Footlocker Pictures ohrqZV
is that it turns the old adage that "business managers are born, not made" into myth. If one can master management science applications, then no problem is too big nor any decision too overwhelming. The goal of management science experts is to wipe out decidophobia.

The first requisite for success science is the ability to apply your physical and mental energies to one decision problem/opportunity incessantly without growing weary. Just being worried about making serious decisions is like sitting on a rocking chair--it gives you something to do but doesn't get you anywhere. Therefore worrying about making a decision is a waste of time. A decision is something you have the capability of changing. Anything else is a fact of life. The first principle in making good decision is that you must not fool yourself, and you are the easiest person to fool . Moreover, making a decision and implementing one are two different things. Here is a question for you: Five frogs are sitting on a log. Four decide to jump off. How many are left? A protracted decision is only one part of the process of choosing because it lacks the commitment to implement the decision. There is a big difference between making a decision and implementing it. The measure of success is not whether you have a tough decision to deal with, but whether it's the same decision you had before. Decide like a man of action; implement like a man of thought. It does not take much strength to decide what to do, but it requires great strength to do things.

Unlike deterministic models (risk-free decisions), the outcome of some decisions depends on the second party, as is the case in any advertising campaign strategic decisions in a competitive market. Therefore, one of the characteristics of decision analysis problems is that "good" decision-making does not necessarily bring about good outcomes. "How could I have been so stupid?" former USA president, John F. Kennedy, asked after he approved the Bay of Pigs invasion.

A decision usually involves three steps:

So aside from that, we see that making the correct decisions is not only what we want to do, but includes what we have to do. The fool who repeats again and again: "I am bound, I am bound," remains in bondage. The fear of making the wrong decision is what pushes and guides us to making a decision by utilizing a scientific approach. This is what Womens MobraSnake Slip on Boat Shoes New Look New Discount Clearance Store IbhrQ
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Rubrics are a helpful instrument in assessing students’ subject matter understanding and skill development. Ideally, the students’ Project Definition Chart, or similar tool completed by students at the beginning of the learning experience, is used to determine the criteria on the rubric. The Buckle up ankle boots Black Golden Goose Free Shipping 2018 Unisex Pre Order Cheap Online Sale Inexpensive Professional Online Discount Very Cheap mLOPjLbeXm
has several resources to support the rubric development process for tinkering and making projects:

Because much of the tinkering and making process is a constructivist one, observing students is a critical method of assessment for mindset skills. Observation of student process provides teachers with ways to monitor the development of subject matter mastery and skills, such as communication, collaboration, frustration tolerance, creativity, grit, and perseverance. The Tinker.Make.Innovate Observation Guidelines (PDF) offers a form for teachers to use as they observe students throughout the process.

Plussing sessions provide a setting for students to receive formative feedback from the teacher and from peers. These sessions are most powerful when the information from the Project Definition Chart is used to inform the feedback session.

Journals provide a space for students to document their learning experience during the tinkering and making process. These serve as an important formative assessment tool to understand students’ thought processes, growth, and metacognitive reflections in a deep, authentic way. The Tinker.Make.Innovate Journal templates (PDF) can be used to provide support for this process.

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Host a Teacher Workshop

Teachers are instrumental in sharing and spreading best practices and innovative strategies to other teachers. Once you’re confident in your conceptual and practical grasp of the Tinker.Make.Innovate process, share your knowledge and expertise with others.

The downloadable presentation decks below (PowerPoint) are adaptable tools for helping you train other teachers interested in the process. The decks are structured to be interactive and participatory and include sample activities and projects taken from Project MASH.

Getting Started with Tinkering Making (PPT) A presentation deck for introducing educators to The Exploratory’s Tinker.Make.Innovate process during a 90-minute peer workshop.

Dig Deeper with Tinkering Making – Half day (PPT) A presentation deck for training educators on The Exploratory’s Tinker.Make.Innovate process during a half-day peer workshop.

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A presentation deck for training educators onThe Exploratory’s Tinker.Make.Innovate process during a full day peer workshop.

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A bimonthly American magazine that focuses on the Maker Movement, Make Magazine encourages readers to participate in the Do It Yourself philosophy.

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